My walk & wade fly fishing trips in Yellowstone Park and Montana are ideal for beginners, clients of any skill level who want to focus on learning or improving their fly fishing tactics, those who prefer a slower-paced day, eager hikers, and those eager to enjoy the scenery, the wildlife, and the geologic wonders of southwest Montana and Yellowstone Park have to offer as much (or almost as much) as the fishing.
Walk & wade trips are available all year. During the core season, trips are available as half-day or full-day options, while from late fall through spring I also offer shorter trips that run during the warmest part of the day. I run most walk trips in Yellowstone National Park, but some trips are available in Montana year-round, and all walk trips take place in Montana from early November through late May.
This cutthroat came on a hike-in trip to the Black Canyon of the Yellowstone
Most of my walk & wade trips should perhaps be called hike & wade trips, or sometimes scramble & wade trips. What do I mean? To shed crowds and improve both "catching" and "fishing," I strongly prefer to guide walk & wade trips on hike-in and/or rugged fisheries. This region sees heavy angling pressure, especially from tourists, and while the vast majority of guided trips are boat-based, the vast majority of non-guided anglers fish on foot. This means that easy-access wade fisheries that are located near the road and have easy footing are almost always crowded. This is particularly true in Yellowstone Park. In the park, even roadside fisheries that aren't good get fished very hard.
There are some famous roadside waters that produce big fish, and they are very popular with some guides, but the fish in these streams see such overwhelming pressure that I do not believe it's sporting to fish for them. Moreover, I don't believe my clients would get their money's worth if I took them to these obvious, over-trafficked fisheries.
What am I trying to say here? My walk trips are most-suited to anglers who are interested in and physically capable of hikes (though seldom long hikes) and/or fishing in areas with swift currents, large rocks, and otherwise questionable footing. Anglers who are worried about their abilities to hike or handle tough footing should consider a float trip or a private water trip instead.
I'm not trying to scare people off here. There are good options for fit people in their 70s, and people in their 40s-60s who take care of themselves and aren't getting over any injuries are typically fine. I just want to be clear that more than your casting arm will be tired after a walk & wade trip.
This brown ate a nymph on an early morning walk-wade trip in early autumn.
What kind of hike am I talking about? Most often, we'll only walk one to three miles each way. Occasionally I might walk as far as five miles one way, but this is rare. The footing on short hikes or on roadside streams is likely to involve steep, erosive banks, boulders, brush, or other obstructions that make anglers who just want to stroll along the river think twice. Keep an eye on the image backgrounds on this page and you'll get an idea what I'm talking about. You can also visit the waters page for details on my preferred walk/wade fisheries.
Read on for information on what to expect from walk trips at given times of year. My rates are identical for walk trips and float trips. Click the "learn more" links in each section below to learn more about the fishing at that time of year. There are plenty more photos when you click these links.
Early spring is prime time to target big fish on foot in areas where they have concentrated to wait for warmer water, or in preparation for their upcoming spawning runs. In fact, this is the best period if you're looking to specifically target larger trout, especially rainbows. On the other hand, it's cold and wet, and the fishing (while potentially excellent) is inconsistent and primarily involves subsurface tactics. Learn more about early spring walk trips.
I caught this big early spring rainbow-cutthroat hybrid on glorious March day. I also got another about the same size, and quite a few cousins. Am I upset a client didn't catch the fish? Not really...
Early spring guided fishing trips in Montana really begin with walk-wade trips on the Yellowstone while the calendar still says it's late winter. By late February, water temperatures rise just enough and light levels have increased enough that large rainbow and some rainbow-cutthroat hybrid (cuttbow) and cutthroat trout begin preparing for their spring spawn in the large eddies downstream of the tributary streams in which they'll run. Hitting these holding areas hard can produce spectacular results from this point through early-mid April. This is basically all nymph fishing with large stoneflies, eggs, San Juan Worms, and big attractor nymphs.
For anglers more interested in dry fly fishing, some opportunities exist in late February and March in big eddies where midges collect after emergence, or when they die before emerging. This isn't dependable fishing, but it is quite good. It's basically a continuation of the winter fishing described at the bottom of this page.
Both of the above are ideal for my "winter special" trips including about 2.5-3 hours on the water. In February and early March, there's no need to get out for than a few hours in early afternoon, when temperatures are most comfortable, unless you want to. If you do want to, half-day walk trips in which we first get some big fish on nymphs and then go hunt risers also make sense. Meeting times during this period will run from 11:00 to 2:00, depending on trip duration.
By early April, options expand somewhat, with the non-spawning trout beginning to spread out from their winter holding areas and more insect hatches, including small black stoneflies, BWO, and March Browns (which seldom hatch in March, despite the name) all potentially bringing fish to the surface. For half-day trips, or full-days in fact, float trips are far more popular due to the flexibility they provide. If you only have a short period, the winter special rates continue through mid-April.
In late April or early May, an additional good walk-wade option arises: the Mother's Day caddis hatch. This is the one period in early spring when the Yellowstone and Madison might be jammed with drift boats, but by walking into areas difficult or impossible to access via boat, such as the rugged Yankee Jim Canyon or just below Gardiner above any boat ramps, it's possible to shed crowds and hit the most likely periods for a hatch to occur, early afternoon and (if it's warm out) late evening. This can be extremely hot dry fly fishing for a couple hours.
Late spring walk-wade fishing is less crowded than it is later in the year and offers the season's best fishing on the geyser-heated Firehole and Gibbon Rivers in Yellowstone Park, as well as good fishing on small hike-in lakes and potentially a few stretches of the Yellowstone and Gardner Rivers. On the other hand, relatively few rivers are clear during this time, and those that are consistently clear require a long drive from Livingston. Learn more about late spring walk trips.
The Firehole is the most popular and sometimes the best late spring walk/wade river in the region. Here an angler is working typical structure.
Public walk-wade options from the onset of the spring melt in early May until the Yellowstone Park season begins are basically nonexistent. We might get out of the boat to fish on foot on private lake trips, and the private spring creeks can be okay, but otherwise the early part of late spring is basically a boat-only show.
Things change when Yellowstone Park opens to angling at sunrise on the Saturday of Memorial Day weekend in late May. For the remainder of late spring, all of my walk trips take place in the park. The geyser-heated Firehole River is typically at its very best for the first couple weeks of the season. In dry years, the Gibbon River is also good right out of the gate, and even following cold, wet winters it is usually ready to go between June 5 and June 10. Since the Firehole is a gentle, meadow river with heavy insect hatches and spooky (though mostly small) trout that fishes best in the mornings, and much of the Gibbon is fast and rocky, filled with trout eager to eat attractor dry/dropper combos, and good in the afternoons, these two streams make an excellent one-two punch to open the park season. Because these waters are far from Livingston, and even from Gardiner, they make sense only on full-day trips that will meet around 7:00 if we're departing from Livingston. These waters are suitable for anglers of all skill levels, though small kids should not fish any of these streams until flows recede a bit after June 10.
The Gibbon is a fast, turbulent river offering great "action" fishing with dry flies and dry-dropper combos.
For anglers interested in something different, some excellent small lakes become available after June 5, particularly Cascade Lake, which holds gorgeous cutthroats and the best populations of the rare Arctic grayling in the region. I'll often pair this lake in the morning with the Gibbon after lunch in mid-June. This pairing too provides a good mix of fishing, since the lake is either subsurface fishing with nymphs and streamers or match-the-hatch dry fly fishing, while the Gibbon continues to be an attractor dry fly show. This trip too is a good choice for beginners, especially since we can work on casting without the complication of current on the lake. This trip is also a full-day only option, and we'll want to be hitting the trail by 9:00AM.
By mid-month, additional waters drop out of runoff, with the precise options depending on the progress of the snowmelt. These include options within reasonable half-day range of Livingston. A couple small stream options almost always appear at this time, while for surefooted anglers who like short-range nymphing the Gardner River can be outstanding, since this river is full of big stoneflies that are preparing to hatch and the trout go nuts for them. During dry years, small portions of the Yellowstone also become fishable by mid-June. This is hike-in fishing with big nymphs and streamers, and it often flies under the radar. A few seasons ago I had a client catch a hundred and six trout on a full-day on the Yellowstone at this time. Needless to say, if it's clear enough, this is where we'll go in mid-late June.
Since some half-day options are available at this time, we might meet early or around midday. Some of the small stream opportunities at this time are the first "beginner brookie" options of the year, as described on the beginner trips page.
Early summer is prime time for hike-in walk-wade fishing on all larger streams as well as many small creeks suitable for beginners. This is a particularly good period for those eager to chase cutthroat trout on the Yellowstone River and rugged portions of the Lamar River and Slough Creek, and/or hoping to hit the fabled Salmonfly hatches without the crowds that accompany this major hatch on rivers large enough for float trips. On the other hand, this is also prime time for crowds, so to find good fishing or at least uncrowded fishing, hiking is basically required, and the hikes can be hot since this is also the hottest time of year. Learn more about early summer walk trips.
Hike-in portions of the Yellowstone River within its Black and Grand Canyons are my preferred walk-trip haunts in early summer (and late summer too). Gorgeous cutthroats like this one, caught during the early-mid July Salmonfly hatch, should make it clear why.
When the rivers across the northern portion of Yellowstone Park drop out of their spring runoff between the last week of June and the middle of July, options for walk-wade trips spike dramatically. The month or so following the end of the runoff offers unquestionably the widest range of options for walk trips, especially for beginners, anglers who like to hike, and those who want to chase cutthroat trout.
The best options throughout this period are the Yellowstone in its Grand and Black Canyons and rugged portions of Slough Creek and the Lamar River. I'll often combine a trip focusing on one of these waters for most of the day that concludes on the Gardner River or one of the fun, out-of-the-way small streams that becomes fishable at this time. Beginner options are great at this time, focusing on half-day trips on assorted small brook trout streams, whether by themselves on half-day trips or combined with more-challenging water on the Gardner or Yellowstone after lunch. In contrast, the Firehole and Gibbon are far too warm to fish well during this period, and the hike-in lakes slow down, too.
Because angler crowds are heavy near the roads in early summer, almost all of my trips during this period involve at least a short hike to shed crowds. When possible, I also like to fish water with rugged banks and fast water, because such a stream character really deters the masses. The ultimate example of this type of water is found on the canyon sections of the Yellowstone, which explains why this is by far my favorite walk-in river for experienced anglers during the summer. In July, most fishing revolves around the Salmonfly and Golden Stonefly hatch. While this hatch typically lasts only a week or ten days outside the park, it can last as much as a month inside it. These finger-length bugs can attract even the largest trout to the surface. Even if they don't want to rise, the fish will take big nymphs hung as droppers under large dry flies. I'll usually carry a spare rod rigged with streamers on this water, and the streamers can be a blast to fish in the deep green pools found on this stretch of the Yellowstone. The trout here love to chase, and will often follow flies during the retrieve all the way to the rod tip before striking, making for the most visual streamer fishing I've ever found.
Regardless of technique, the Yellowstone is best for experienced anglers, especially due to the variety of tactics that often must be employed for success.
Rugged portions of Slough Creek can turn out some excellent post-spawn trout during this period.
Mayfly hatches are also excellent on certain waters during this period, particularly the Western Green Drake hatches which can get the fish really excited. These hatches are most common on the Lamar River and its main tributaries Slough Creek and Soda Butte Creek, as well as a few smaller streams. For anglers interested in this match-the-hatch fishing, I typically guide on the rugged portions of the Lamar and Slough, as well as on a couple waters I won't name online. These locations tend to hold split populations of trout, with a lot of small ones as well as a few great fish like the one in the photo above, rather than the medium-sized fish common in the meadow sections of the Lamar and its tribs, which see horrendous and overwhelming angler crowds at this time. This water is suitable for anglers of a variety of skill levels, provided they're up for some rock-hopping.
Full-day and half-day trips are available at this time, though full-day trips provide time to get further into the park and take longer hikes. Most full-days will start between 6:00 and 8:00, depending on how far we'll be hiking, while half-days will generally start around 8:00.
Late summer continues to offer excellent hike-in fishing, and both the hikes and the wading are usually not so onerous at this time as in early summer, due to lower water levels, slower currents, and cooler air temperatures. In addition, this is prime time for small, rough mountain creeks that might still be too high in early summer. Regardless of locale, this is an excellent time for anglers who like fishing terrestrial dry flies, and can turn out some big fish on subsurface flies, as well. The downsides of late summer are continued crowds, especially on famous roadside waters, and potentially low, clear, and somewhat warm water than might mean we have to be on the water early in the morning to beat the heat (of water temperatures if not air temperatures). Learn more about late summer walk trips.
The Yellowstone River continues to fish well in late summer, with terrestrial dry flies and streamer tactics (pictured here) the top producers.
Beginning in the last few days of July, the fishing in Yellowstone Park begins to shift to terrestrial insects. On steeper and broken streams that see lower pressure, this generally means grasshopper and cricket imitations. On streams with gentle gradients where pressure is heavier, it generally means ant and beetle imitations, while certain streams and the Gallatin River can see phenomenal falls of spruce budworm moths that really get the trout excited. Aquatic insect hatches are better inside Yellowstone Park than outside it at this time, with assorted small and medium-sized mayflies the most likely suspects. These hatches are most likely when the weather is gray, as is a bit more common in August (and especially early September) than it is earlier in the summer.
Other than slight changes in the flies we use and the venues we fish, there are fewer changes on late summer walk trips than on other trips. The Yellowstone remains my favorite destination for walk trips, with portions of Slough Creek, the Lamar, and the Gardner the main support acts with experienced anglers and small brook trout creeks best for beginners. There are also greater opportunities for walk-wade trips outside the park at this time, since the many steep mountain creeks that enter the Yellowstone, as well as rough upper sections of the Boulder and Stillwater, fish much better during this period than early summer. In contrast, some of the flatter and gentler small creeks that are good in late spring and early summer slow down at this time.
Small, rugged creeks offer a great way of beating the heat in late summer. This one is just outside Yellowstone Park and holds some larger-than-average brook trout.
The fishing continues to change as late summer progresses. The mayfly hatches get less consistent overall, though gray weather can prompt heavy hatches of both "summer" bugs and the first hatches of "fall" bugs like Blue-winged Olives. This type of weather also increases early opportunities for early-morning nymph fishing in pursuit of larger trout. On the flipside, decreasing water levels and especially abnormally cool weather can reduce the quality of beginner fishing. In a sense, the latter half of late summer is a bit of a changeover period. If it remains warm and bright, the fishing resembles that of early summer in most respects, save with different flies and a greater emphasis on small mountain creeks. If there's an early cool snap with some moisture, the fishing starts to resemble early fall.
Late summer walk-wade trips offer a huge benefit over other trips at this period: consistent water temperatures. While private lakes and many low-elevation float rivers are always poor during this period, and during drought years even faster, deeper rivers with colder water like the Yellowstone can be shaky on the hottest afternoons, the higher-elevation waters I typically guide on walk-wade trips always stay cool enough to fish, and the deep canyons and shade enjoyed by many of these streams keep the fish eager even when it's bright and sunny and the water gets low. If you want to be sure to have good water conditions for your trip, be open to walking during this timeframe if conditions dictate, even if you're otherwise intending to take a river float.
Early autumn offers the widest range of fishable walk-wade waters of any season, and the crowds begin to decline at least late in this period. For those who like match-the-hatch mayfly fishing, this is an ideal period, since mayfly hatches abound on all larger streams. It's also a good chance for those who are willing to get out first thing in the morning or during the ugliest weather to get some of the biggest brown trout of the year. The downsides are continued crowds near the road and inconsistent conditions. While overall crowds do decline, these crowds slant older and less-fit, which means that the roadside easy-access streams can be more crowded now than earlier in the season, especially when the weather is nice. Speaking of the weather, it might be beautiful and sunny or spitting bitter cold rain or snow. These varying weather (and water) conditions also mean that we'll have to play where and how we fish by ear, based on what fishes well given the day-to-day or even hour-to-hour conditions. Learn more about early autumn walk trips.
Brown trout become an important quarry in early autumn as they prepare for the late autumn spawn. This big hen ate an attractor nymph.
Sometime between August 20 and September 10, the nights start getting frosty while the days remain warm. This begins to change the options and techniques on walk-wade guided trips in Yellowstone. The small streams start to falter, as do the heavily-pressured meadow waters in Yellowstone Park where I seldom guide. The bigger and rougher waters remain good, though the early morning is only good when anglers are hunting a couple big fish on nymphs and streamers rather than a bunch of little ones on dries. Thankfully, big fish opportunities increase at this time, as the brown trout begin moving towards their October-November spawning areas, prompted by cooling water. Dry fly fishing switches from better in the mornings and early afternoons to typically better in the afternoons, and terrestrial insects and lingering summer mayflies are joined and soon replaced by heavier hatches of autumn insects.
This is an excellent period for walk-wade trips for clients who want to use a variety of tactics and even see a variety of waters in one day. Probably my most typical fall walk-wade excursion consists of nymph fishing on "River X" for a few larger brown trout starting at dawn, followed by streamer and dry fly fishing for numbers of cutthroat on the Yellowstone from late morning through midafternoon. This can also be done as a combo trip, replacing the walking portion on the Yellowstone for a float that's easier on the knees than hiking the Yellowstone's rough canyon walls.
For anglers who'd rather hike a bit more and fish one water, the Yellowstone remains good, as do canyon stretches of the Lamar. By this point Slough Creek is not worth much, in my opinion, though the Gardner remains a secondary option, too. As long as the afternoons remain warm, smaller mountain streams remain good, but the gentle brook trout streams good for rookies and kids are generally poor by this point. As early autumn progresses, the Gibbon and Firehole rejoin the party, though I only guide on them when rain and early snow (yes, it can happen in September) muddy the water closer to home. Some opportunities begin on the Yellowstonw outside the park at this time, as well, since the lower and colder water makes hitting short chunks on the "float stretch" thoroughly a better option than earlier in the core season.
There's a reason I like chasing browns with my clients at this time. There's also a reason I cropped the image so tight; I don't want the location to be very recognizable.
Early fall typically offers very good fishing on walk-wade trips, especially for anglers with a bit of know-how who like nymph fishing and matching hatches. That said, it's also an inconsistent time of year, primarily due to weather and water conditions. When't it's abnormally hot and bright, the big browns sulk and the mayfly hatches might not occur. Cold weather is better, but if this cold is accompanied by too much rain and snow, most of the good waters (Yellowstone, Gardner, and "River X") can get muddy for a day or two. For this reason I encourage anglers considering early autumn trips to stay flexible. Walk where the walking is good and use what the fish demand, or consider a different trip type if it looks like another trip will produce better.
Full-day or half-day trips make sense in this timeframe. Unless we're looking for a few big ones early, there's often no reason to start full-day trips before 9:00, especially later in September. Unless the weather stinks, half-days in search of big browns or full-days including brownie chasing for starters will need to be on the water and ready to fish at dawn, typically a bit before 7:00AM. This might mean a meeting time as early as 5:00AM depending on where you're staying and where we're meeting. Half-days in which we're not chasing browns can meet at a far more civilized time, around 11:00. Regardless of trip goals, early autumn is not a great time for beginners to take walk trips unless they're prepared to only get a few bites and mostly want to focus on learning rather than catching a lot of fish. Beginner float trips are better for the latter.
The crowds really do decline in late autumn, and while fewer waters fish well at this time than earlier in the year, those that do fish well at this time fish really well. This is especially true of waters that host fall-run brown trout. The best "big brownie" fishing happens now, and in late autumn it's seldom necessary to get on the water early if you want to chase these fish, as you often have to in early fall. On the other hand, the weather can be horrendous, with heavy snow and temperatures in the teens more than feasible by this late in the year, and as noted above many fisheries are simply too cold. Learn more about late autumn walk trips.
There's a reason the angler is wearing a hat... Late autumn offers cold conditions but good nymph and streamer fishing, often for larger fish.
The transition from early autumn to late is based on light levels, water temperatures, and weather. Basically, if it's under about 50 degrees in the afternoon, nights are in the twenties or even lower, and it snows from time to time and sticks even at valley level, it's late autumn. The weather is often dreadful, with the best fishing taking place when it is, and many fisheries are now done for the year, with the fish in a stupor due to cold water temperatures. Those that remain offer some of the best big trout fishing of the season, as well as opportunities for excellent numbers of trout, as well.
While we'll take the occasional BWO hatch if it comes, late autumn walk trips are centered on one thing: the brown trout run. Sometimes we target the big pre-spawn browns migrating towards their spawning grounds like salmon, sometimes we target the resident rainbow and cutthroat trout or even the big run-up rainbows that follow the browns like they follow the salmon in Alaska, eating eggs. Either way, the brown trout are the drivers.
For this reason, I run my late autumn walk trips exclusively on rivers where brown trout are running: the Yellowstone, the Madison, the Gardner, the Gibbon, the lower Firehole, and "River X," both within Yellowstone Park and outside it. Private spring creeks also turn on strong at this time, with the same runs of browns.
Note: Yellowstone Park closes to angling at sunset on the first Sunday in November. After this point, all late fall trips are conducted outside the park, typically on rugged sections of the Yellowstone where we need not worry about competition from boaters.
Yeah, I caught this one. My business declines in late autumn due to the often-horrendous weather, so I actually get to fish a bit. Notice that I'm wearing a pair of fingerless gloves...
Most fishing at this time of year is subsurface, with stonefly and BWO nymphs, egg imitations, and streamers. For an hour or two on occasional afternoons there are enough BWO mayflies to get the smaller fish rising, and once in a great while enough bugs to get the larger fish rising, but this is icing on the cake. Streamers are likewise usually less important, serving as a secondary tactic to get the most aggressive trout before running through the same water with nymphing setups. Depending on the location and water depth, we may use indicator nymphing tactics or work on high-stick or "Euro-nymphing" tactics. This is an excellent time to utilize these tactics.
Virtually all of my walk trips at this point in the season are half-day trips. Since even the light-sensitive browns are now eager to eat throughout the day and angling crowds are almost nonexistent, there's no need to get out at the crack of dawn when in might be ten or fifteen degrees. We'll instead usually fish from just after lunch until sunset, prime time in the first case for BWO activity and in the latter for the largest browns.
Fishing at this time of year is doable for beginners who are eager to learn and are okay with working for their fish, but it is seldom gangbusters for them. Kids should not come at this time, both because of the challenge of the fishing and because the cold gets to them more easily.
Winter fishing is not for the faint-of-heart, and in truth it's not good enough for long enough on any given day to make traveling here solely to fish a good choice. On the other hand, if you're in the area to ski or snowboard, snowshoe, wildlife watch, or ride snowmobiles, great fishing for a few hours each day is more than possible in a few places, provided you're up for the cold weather that dominates. Learn more about winter walk trips.
Say hello to my little friend. Midges both subsurface and on top (this is a dry) are the top flies during the winter. This one is a size-20.
Let's get one thing straight. It would be silly to come to Montana in the winter only to fish. That said, there are good opportunities any day it's warm enough you can stand it, at least for a few hours in the afternoon. If you're coming to the Yellowstone region to wildlife watch, snowshoe, downhill or XC ski (or snowboard, as I do), or ride snow machines, it is more than worth it to take an afternoon to fish. The opportunities are just limited.
By far the best trips in the winter are found on the private spring creeks. These reservation-only streams stay warm through the winter, and therefore often have active and frisky trout in the winter. In fact, many locals only fish the creeks at this time, when access fees are lower. Unless you dislike the idea of paying access fees to go fishing, I suggest clicking on over to learn more about these trips.
Still here? Here's the skinny on my winter trips on public waters.
These trips are limited to ice-free areas of the Yellowstone. For most of the winter, this means short chunks of water downstream from hot springs or springfed tributaries, though during warm spells some larger eddies out in the sun are reasonable bets. Most of the time, we'll fish no more than 1/4 mile in 2.5-3 hours of fishing. The fish concentrate in good holding water at this time, so unlike summer when 2-3 fish out of the same hole can be a lot, you might see twenty fish in one hole in the winter.
This number is not an exaggeration. There aren't many places to fish in the winter, but those places are good, and when the fish are feeding for a few hours in midafternoon, they are often really feeding. The best winter flies are mostly small, imitations of midges and small mayflies. Most fishing is subsurface, with tiny nymphs drifted tight to the bottom, but there is a surprising amount of dry fly fishing in the winter, too. This is primarily with tiny midges, but equally-tiny mayflies are possible too. Dry fly fishing is most likely near hot spring inputs on days in the 30s with calm wind.
Because of the cold and the limited window of good fishing in the afternoon, all of my trips in the dead of winter are my "winter special" trips, when we'll be on the water for 2.5 to 3 hours. These are great options for hardcore fly anglers, pretty poor options for everybody else. Besides the spring creek trips mentioned above, they are the only trips that make sense in the dead of winter.
Walter Wiese is Montana Outfitter #22001 (formerly guide #9530) and Madison River SRP Holder #297. Yellowstone Park trips are run in cooperation with and under the permit of YNP CUA holder Richard Parks.
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